Biotechnology (Genetic Engineering)5Th Sem Free Pdf Download Kashmir University Notes JK Crown

Genetic engineering primarily involves the manipulation of genetic material (DNA) to achieve 
the desired goal in a pre-determined way. Some other terms are also in common use to describe 
genetic engineering.
 Gene manipulation
 Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology
 Gene cloning (molecular cloning)
 Genetic modifications
 New genetics
A clone is an identical copy. This term originally applied to cells of a single type, isolated and 
allowed to reproduce to create a population of identical cells. DNA cloning involves separating a 
specific gene or DNA segment from a larger chromosome, attaching it to a small molecule of 
carrier DNA, and then replicating this modified DNA thousands or millions of times through 
both an increase in cell number and the creation of multiple copies of the cloned DNA in

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