Study Material for BG 4th Semester (Chemistry) pdf download kashmir university


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UNIT: Amines and Heterocyclic Compounds)
Amines: Classification and factors affecting basicity of amines. Mechanistic details (wherever
applicable) of methods of formation of alkyl and arylamines through reduction of nitro
compounds and nitriles. Gabriel-Phthalamide reaction and Hofmann rearrangement. Mechanisms
involved in the formation and reactions of arenediazonium salts including Azo coupling.
Heterocyclic compounds bearing one nitrogen atom: Stuctural features of pyrrole,
pyrrolidine, pyridine and piperidine and comparative account of their basic strength. Aromaticity
and electrophilic substitution reactions of pyrrole and their comparison with those of furan and
thiophene.Mechanisms involved in the preparations of Indole and quinoline using Fischer-Indole
and Bishlier-Napierlaski syntheses.
Amines: Their classification
 Alkyl, aryl and ar-alkyl derivatives of amAmines: Their classification
 Alkyl, aryl and ar-alkyl derivatives of ammonia are known as amines
 General formula is RNH2, R2NH, R3NH, where R can be any alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.
 Amines are classified in to primary, secondary and tertiary amines depending upon the
number of Hydrogen atoms in ammonia replaced by alkyl or aryl group.
 If one of hydrogen atom in NH3 is replaced by alkyl or aryl group, the derivative of
ammonia so obtained is known as primary amine, if two hydrogen atoms in ammonia are
replaced by alkyl, aryl or ar-alkyl groups, the derivative obtained is known as secondary
amine, while as if all H atoms in ammonia are replaced by alkyl aryl or aralkyl groups, a
tertiaty amine is obtained as shown below

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