Sixth Semester Notes (History) Kashmir University Free Pdf Download


E content of 6th semester history
Prepared by Mr. Kowser Ahmad Ganai
Unit iv:-
Emergency administration and popular government:-
The years of 1940s were turbulent in the Indian subcontinent due to unrest caused by
world war II, Quitindia movement and unending communal riots. These events convinced
the British government both at home and in India that their days of rule are strictly
counted. Seeing explicitly writing on the wall the British government at home acting on the
advice of viceroy, Lord Mountbatten announced partition plan i.e; India was to be divided
in to two dominions viz dominion of India and dominion of Pakistan and the 562 odd
princely states were given the option to join either of the two dominions by or before 15th
August 1947. However, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir remained indecisive giving
birth to” Kashmir imbroglio”.
Hearing of tribal advancement from Pakistan to Srinagar for forcibly occupying the state,
Maharaja Hari Singh along with the entire council of ministers left the valley on 26th of
October 1947, thereby creating vacuum which at this critical juncture was filled by the
national conference. It organized district and Mohalla committees to function as local
government. It organized a National militia for repulsing invaders who were fastly
approaching to Srinagar. Moreover, the economic blockade of the state by Pakistan,
together with the severe winter of 1947-48 added to the hardships of people. It is said that
salt, an essential commodity of both rich and poor could not be had even for Rs 10 per
kilogram. The conference despite all odds ensured essential supply to the states people
over snowbound Banihal pass. Besides catering to needs of people the emergency
administration (as it was called ) with Sheikh Abdullah as head provided all possible
assistance to the army in the form of pack- ponies, transport, vehicles, labour etc who were
busy fighting the tribals. It is important to mention that Indian narrative is that the
Maharaja Hari Singh on 26the October 1947signed instrument of accession (conditional)
with India, suurendering three of its vital powers viz defence, communication and foreign
affairs to Indian government. The Jammu and Kashmir government retained autonomy in
all other matters which was reinforced by Article 370 of the Indian constitution. 

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