Chemistry Study Material (5th & 6th Semester) – Chemical Kinetics pdf kashmir university


Chemical kinetics, the branch of physical chemistry that is concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. It is to be contrasted with thermodynamics, which deals with the direction in which a process occurs but in itself tells nothing about its rate. Thermodynamics is time’s arrow, while chemical kinetics is time’s clock. Chemical kinetics relates to many aspects of cosmology, geology, biology, engineering, and even psychology and thus has far-reaching implications. The principles of chemical kinetics apply to purely physical processes as well as to chemical reactions.  One reason for the importance of kinetics is that it provides evidence for the mechanisms of chemical processes. Besides being of intrinsic scientific interest, knowledge of reaction mechanisms is of practical use in deciding what is the most effective way of causing a reaction to occur. Many commercial processes can take place by alternative reaction paths, and knowledge of the mechanisms makes it possible to choose reaction conditions that favour one path over others.

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A chemical reaction is, by definition, one in which chemical substances are transformed into other substances, which means that chemical bonds are broken and formed so that there are changes in the relative positions of atoms in molecules. At the same time, there are shifts in the arrangements of the electrons that form the chemical bonds. A description of a reaction mechanism must therefore deal with the movements and speeds of atoms and electrons. The detailed mechanism by which a chemical process occurs is referred to as the reaction path, or pathway.

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