Kashmir University 4th Semester Botany Study Material
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PLANT-WATER RELATIONS AND TRANSPORT (Lectures-16)
1. Plant Water Relations: water potential and its components; Transpiration and its
significance; Factors affecting transpiration; Ascent of Sap, Pressure flow model;
Phloem loading and unloading.
2. Mineral nutrition: Essential elements, macro and micronutrients; Criteria of
essentiality of elements; Role of essential elements; Transport of ions across cell
membrane, active and passive transport.
UNIT II: PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION (Lectures-16)
1. Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic Pigments (Chl-a, Chl-b, xanthophylls, carotene);
light harvest complexes, Photosystem I and II, Electron transport and mechanism of
ATP synthesis; C3, C4 and CAM pathways of carbon fixation; Photorespiration.
2. Respiration: Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, TCA cycle; Electron Transport
system and Oxidative phosphorylation.
UNIT III: ENZYMES AND NITROGEN METABOLISM (Lectures-14)
1. Enzymes: Structure, Classification and properties; Mechanism of enzyme action and
2. Nitrogen metabolism: concept of symbiotic and asymbiotic associations, Biological
nitrogen fixation; Nitrate and ammonia assimilation.
UNIT IV: PLANT GROWTH AND RESPONSE (Lectures-14)
1. Plant growth regulators: Discovery and physiological roles of auxins, gibberellins,
cytokinins, ABA and ethylene.
2. Plant response to light and temperature:Photoperiodism (SDPs, LDPs, Day
neutral plants); Phytochrome (discovery and structure), red and far red light
responses on photomorphogenesis; Vernalization.