Kashmir University 6th semester Botany study material

Environment may be defined as the surrounding of a living organism. With the realization of
a direct interference of man with environment and vice versa, environment also encompasses
the social and cultural forces of human society. Environmental factors are external forces
either living or non-living that affect the life of the organisms. The non-living environment
can further be classified into atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere, whereas biotic
environment is called biosphere. Environmental factors are substances (soil, rock, water, air),
conditions (light, temperature, humidity, rainfall), forces (wind, gravity), and organisms
(plants, animals, microorganisms, human being). Broadly the environmental factors are
classified as:
1. Climatic factors: These factors denote the long term average weather conditions of a place
for examples temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity, fog, cloud cover and atmosphere

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