Bio Technology 6th Sem Study Material- Plant Technology. pdf download kashmir university

 

Introduction
The conventional breeding methods are the most widely used for crop improvement. But in
certain situations, these methods have to be supplemented with plant tissue culture
techniques either to increase their efficiency or to be able to achieve the objective, which is
not possible through the conventional methods. One example of each situation would
illustrate the point. Production of pure lines or in breeds involve six to seven generations of
selfing. Production of haploids through distant crosses or using pollens, anther or ovary
culture, followed by chromosome doubling, reduces this time to two generations. This
represents a saving of four to six years. The other example is the transfer of a useful bacterial
gene say, cry (crystal protein) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, into a plant cell and ultimately
regeneration of whole plants containing and expressing this gene.(transgenic plants). This can
be achieved by a combination of tissue culture and genetic engineering, none of the
conventional breeding approaches can ever produce such a plant.
The term tissue culture is commonly used in a very wide sense to include in vitro culture
of plant cells, tissue as well as organs. But in a strict sense, tissue culture denotes the in-vitro
cultivation of plant cells in an unorganized mass e.g., callus cultures. Another term, cell culture
is used for in-vitro culture of single or relatively small groups of plant cells e.g., suspension
cultures. But in general, the term tissue culture is applied to both callus and suspension
cultures and cell culture is often used for callus culture as well. When organized structures like
root tips, shoot tips, embryos, etc are cultured in-vitro to obtain their development as
organized.
Plant Cell Totipotency: Totipotency is the genetic potential of a plant cell to produce the
entire plant. In other words, totipotency is the cell characteristic in which the potential for
forming all the cell types in the adult organism is retained. The basis of tissue culture is to
grow large number of cells in a sterile controlled environment. The cells are obtained from
stem, root or other plant parts and are allowed to grow in culture medium containing mineral
nutrients, vitamins and hormones to encourage cell division and growth. As a result, the cells
in culture will produce an un-organised proliferative mass of cells which is known as callus
tissue

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